Vineyards also existed in the frankenwald

Actually the frankenwald is known as a beer region. Nevertheless, it is documented that wine was served here more than 700 years ago. The question remains, however, where the wine came from and whether once there were also grapevines in the franconian forest.

Certainly the main part of the wine consumption at that time consisted of self-made fruit wines, for example from the popular sloes, currants or gooseberries, because every burgher of kronach was entitled to serve wine as well as beer. At this point, we would like to remind you of the wine tavern of the schubert family, the "fassla-schubert" in kronach, whose house had to give way only 1965 to the new building of a department store, or to the wine economy schubert in friesen.

It was only through the flourishing trade that wine made from grapes from all over germany and abroad came to the region. Nevertheless – there were already plantations of vine socks also with us.

Field names as a clue
The names of the fields often contain references to historical events of the past. Even today, the lists of flurnames that were compiled around 1930 for the district of kronach are still of folkloric significance. The name of the vineyard attracted attention and "weingarten, the proof is to be furnished here that with us in the frankenwald, in this alleged "rough area", once really vineyards or vineyards were laid out.

If one takes the flurnamensverzeichnis to the hand, then the landkreis kronach uberraschlich registers several such names, which concentrate however on the south of the landkreis. One may therefore assume that the northern frankenwald was unsuitable for planting vines.

The southernmost field designation with upper and lower vineyard top" is located in hain. The "weinleite" follows in oberlangenstadt. Northwest of kups is the "weinberg". In weibenbrunn, there is a "weinsbergacker". Northwest of neuses lies the "weingartenacker", which the inventor added "until 1880 wine was grown here". The kreuzberg in kronach dates back to the 17th century. Century "vineyard and got his today's name only after erection of a cross (1634).

The land to the southwest of hofles is particularly interesting because there is a "vineyard field", a "vineyard and as an access the "weingartenfuhr. The former vineyard began after the ruppen inn up to the high of the entrance to hofles. On the left of the federal road on the slope was the field weinberg, on the right of the road in the valley was the field weingarten acker. The distinction was made between the slopes and the valleys. When clearing the hedges on the lower slope, the workers at that time found some vine stocks, as it is written down.

In the west of unterrodach in the field schelleite is also a "vineyard" recorded. About the "vineyard" situated to the west of friesen writes the inventor of the time: "around 1900 there were still vines found on the vineyard." on the same hill in the district of steinberg there is also the name "weinberg".

Northwest of schwarzdorf near mitwitz there is a "vineyard in the kalksroth". This line schwarzdorf – steinberg forms the border for the frequent occurrence of the wine flor names in the district kronach.

It can therefore be said that with the ascending mountains towards the frankenwald, the field names "weinberg and so on disappear. If one looks however at the small cultivation areas in relation to that, which was drunk at wine, then it is to be fallen on the fact that most wine came by dealers to kronach and/or that self produced berry wines came to the ausschank.

Wine as a gift
Wine was already served in kronach in 1400, because bishop albrecht allowed the city to levy a tax on beer and wine. Wine tax lists later prove that considerable quantities of wine were consumed in kronach alone.

In the past, there was a special use in the old town of kronach, which many a councillor would be pleased about today, because councillors were given a special marriage a good portion of wine as a gift from the city. The wine was paid from the town treasury. In the burgermeister accounts appear therefore again and again such items. When in 1748 the son of the deceased mayor schubert named philipp married – he was also a member of the council – he was presented with 36 mab of wine as a gift.

It was similar when a burgher's son entered the priesthood or an order and then paid his first visit to his hometown. The document reads: "10 gulden, 24 kreuzer seynd ihro paternitat herrn patri abundio gressel provinciali deren P. P. Franciscanorum as a local burgher's son on 26 maas wine ad 24 kreuzer at his first here seyn with council approval prohentirt, and mr. Johann pabstmann of the council has been paid et seem nro. 31."

That earlier to the tasting of the "himmeltrager" during the processions, among other things, wine was served, as can be seen from many church accounts. In 1712 the bill reads: "1 gulden 40 kreuzer for wine, putter and bread, so the gentlemen sky carriers the 3 umbgang at the kirchner consumed." this use of tasting, not only of the himmeltrager, is verifiable over centuries.

Large quantities of wine had to be stocked whenever bamberger prince bishops came to kronach to receive the homage of the burgomaster, council and burgesses. During a visit in 1614, the town fathers presented the bishop with 6 buckets of beer and "three aimer of wine" (= approx. 200 liter). In 1750, wine from the rhine and franconia was served to the distinguished guests and their companions. There is always talk of both female and red wine flowed. With riesling, niersteiner, forster and champagne one entertained the guests in the year 1832.

We know from the burghers that wine was always more expensive than beer. Thus one distinguished at weddings between beer and wine mills. As early as 1583, it was regulated: whoever was to be served at a "beer wedding" was to be served at a "wine wedding" had to pay the wine to the host himself.

From the city ordinances
Already in the oldest city ordinances of kronach one finds regulations, how beer and wine landlords have to behave towards their guests. In the city ordinance of 1488, for example, the following is stipulated for the winegrowers: "and no wine tavern should offer two taps, at the pub five pounds. Whoever mixes the wine with water or sells it in an improper way, shall be punished in body and soul."

The wine merchants were always accused of increasing their profits by giving the wine to the guests in too small drinking vessels. That is why this passage about the lawful fiddles is found in all the city ordinances. It is pointed out that a wine-keeper who is found guilty has to go to the calibration office in the same hour. But this did not release him from a fine of two pounds.

It is interesting to note that even then, new wine (federweiser) was served in the fall, which can also be deduced from the penalties imposed. For whoever "in autumn times new and virgin wine" if a person poured two cones together, he was fined 16 pounds.

In order to control the quality of the wine and the turnover, there were three so-called wine-setters in the town, consisting of a council member and two sworn burgesses. In order to determine the price for serving the wine, the innkeepers were asked where the wine came from and how they intended to sell it. After that, the wine tasters tasted the wine, consulted with each other and finally set the price. If the merchant did not agree and protested, no wine could be given until the council had made a decision. In such cases, the bailiff and the town bailiff were also consulted. When the agreement was finally reached, the price was fixed to the last drop.

An example from 18. January 1630, during the thirty years' war, makes this clear. The committee suggested that the wine in the cellars of the innkeepers be sold barrel by barrel according to the value and the price written on the barrel – the best wine for 50 dn (= denar = penny), then 48, 46, 44, or 42 dn. After the mayor and the council agreed, the "wine tax" was introduced valid for one year.

If, however, an innkeeper allowed himself to sell before the wine setter, he was fined again, as well as if, after the wine setters were with him, he stretched the wine with water in order to make more profit. The "offender" was punished according to the circumstances of the offence with the advice of a governor in body and soul without mercy."

tokajer from hungary in the pharmacy
the hours of dispensing were also strictly regulated. No burgher or innkeeper was allowed to serve wine or beer before early mass on sundays, feast days and holy days. Only at "a wanderer who knows about the field, he may bring to his need a jug or more."

For the protection of the innkeepers one had also thought of the tipplers and had given them a punishment measure. Every tippler was punished with imprisonment and warned to pay the bill to the landlord immediately.

To prevent the people of kronach from staying too long in the tavern at night, the town fathers created a so-called "wine bell" or "sleeping bell" and love these on the city tower to attach. It was the task of the town tower to sound them at the appointed time, which was different in summer and winter. With the sounding of the bell it was forbidden to all landlords to fill the cups again. They had to make sure that their drinkers left the tavern to go home.

"Medically effective"
when in 1860 the railroad network was extended from south to kronach, it was easier for the merchants to order wines from other countries as well. Popular and "medically effective especially recommended was the rich tokajeer from hungary. In drugstores and even in pharmacies you could buy this "medicine" which was taken up very gladly by the population.

The merchants advertised in the newspapers and gazettes, for example: "medic". Hungarian wines recommended in excellent quality as the best starch for all weak and sick people in 1/1, 1/2, 1/4 original bottles: carl rothel" from ludwigsstadt. Muscatel and wormwood wine was available in the colonial stores from the barrel and many a good man and woman, so it is still said today, came home from shopping with a heavy heart.

If one compares the times of that time with today, then we live, at least in relation to wine procurement and wine consumption, in a land of plenty. Globalization has made it possible that today wine shops and supermarkets carry wines from all over the world. Something for every taste and every budget. Furthermore, for decades there have been sponsorships with wine villages and their winegrowers. Wine is offered in abundance. So today, every buyer and consumer has become his or her own wine setter.

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